Already in February, gardeners begin to actively grow seedlings from seeds. To get quality seedlings, it is important to properly prepare the seeds for sowing. Which way to awaken seeds to choose?
Why don’t the seeds sprout
All gardeners are faced with a situation when the soil is correctly selected and the seeds are fresh, but the seedlings still do not appear. The most common reason for the lack of sprouts is in the soil. If the soil is not properly disinfected, it contains many pathogens of fungal and bacterial infections, pest larvae. In a matter of days in warmth and with high humidity, they are able to destroy the embryos of seeds.
Another reason for the lack of seedlings is in the characteristics of a particular culture. Indicators above 90% are considered good germination for seeds. However, not all plants can please with such a high germination rate. For some, even 50% or less is considered the norm.
The germination factor must be taken into account when planning plantings. To the planned number it is necessary to add the percentage of “losses”, that is, the approximate number of seeds that will not sprout.
An equally significant reason why the seeds do not germinate lies in the peculiarities of plant growth in natural conditions. So, for some seeds to activate the embryo, high humidity is sufficient, while others sprout only after the obligatory “cold” period, imitating winter.
In addition, there are crops whose seeds have a very dense shell that protects the embryo from destructive drought, heat or frost. They retain their germination capacity longer, but they may not germinate for a long time. Their shell prevents moisture from entering and swelling of the embryo.
To awaken such seeds, you will need to pay more attention and care to them. In response, they will certainly thank you with strong, friendly seedlings.
Ways to awaken seeds
Before sowing, it is important to familiarize yourself with the characteristics of each crop in order to find the right way to awaken the seeds. For some crops, several options can be used to achieve high germination of the seed.
Soaking the seeds even in plain water helps to saturate the embryo with moisture and to awaken it. Medium and large seeds are subject to soaking, small seeds are quickly saturated with moisture already in the ground.
Use warm water for soaking. It is advisable to maintain its temperature at + 30 … + 40 degrees, or periodically add warm water. Duration of seed soaking should not exceed 2-3 days.
Soak the seeds for convenience in cloth bags. If the seeds have swollen, increased in size, then they are ready for planting.
For vegetable crops, heating of the seed is required. This will reduce the number of barren flowers, accelerate the onset of fruiting, and strengthen the immunity of seedlings.
The seeds must be dry for heating. The higher the temperature, the shorter the heating period: at 60 degrees it is only 2 hours, at 28 degrees – up to a month.
Many crops (for example, clematis, etc.) require stratification for the emergence of seedlings – cooling the seeds. To do this, planting containers with seeds are placed in a refrigerator, cellar or in a snowdrift for a period of 2 weeks to 2 months.
During this time, the seeds swell and awaken, a container with them can be brought into the house and placed on the windowsill.
The seeds, covered with a thick peel, germinate for a long time, sprouts appear from 2 weeks to six months. In order to get friendly early shoots, it is necessary to break the dense seed coat without damaging the embryo. Scarification will require pelargonium, gatsania, etc.
For work, sandpaper or a file is suitable, with which the peel is grinded. You can pierce the seed with a needle or grind it with particles of coarse sand or small pebbles.
In addition to mechanical scarification, thermal or chemical scarification can be used. In the first case, the seeds are placed in a tissue bag and dipped several times for a few seconds, first in hot water, then in cold water. In the second case, the seeds are treated with acids: this imitates the effect of the gastric juice of birds and animals.
Some crops (for example, aconite or primrose) can be “woken up” by freezing them. For this, the seeds are placed in a cloth bag and placed in water for several hours. Further, the seeds are removed to the freezer overnight, and during the day they are kept at room temperature again.
Freezing allows seeds to germinate quickly and amicably, and the seedlings become more resistant to adverse environmental influences.
Sparging seeds in a jar
Seed germination can be accelerated by the bubbling method – oxygen saturation. To do this, you need a can of water and an aquarium compressor with a spray tip.
During the day, the seeds will be soaked and saturated with oxygen, due to which they will sprout quickly and amicably.
You can help seeds germinate not only in the listed ways. The awakening of the embryo is facilitated by special substances that stimulate its growth.
Growth stimulants are a real salvation for gardeners in the struggle for a harvest. Soaking the seeds in stimulating preparations can significantly accelerate the germination of the seed, to achieve friendly shoots.
There is another advantage in growth promoters – they make seedlings more resistant to adverse conditions. Thanks to this, the seedlings are easier to tolerate some of the mistakes of gardeners, for example, drought, waterlogging or insufficient lighting. blue liquid in a container
For each drug, a dosage is selected in accordance with the instructions for use. You should not prepare a more concentrated working solution: this can lead to the opposite effect, the seeds will lose germination.Tags: gardening, seed, seedling